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Humans need nutrients from food. The digestion process is so complex that the nutrients may not enter your body even if you eat the best food.

Digestion is an important process that your body goes through daily. Without it, you would quickly become sick and even die. Digestion begins with breaking down food in your stomach and proceeds through the rest of your system. Unfortunately, many people suffer from digestional problems that can lead to significant health issues.

The digestive system is a labyrinth of tubes and organs that breaks down food to extract nutrients and energy. It’s a complex system that relies on a delicate balance to function properly. If something goes wrong, digestion can become impaired, leading to various health problems. This page will explore how the digestive system works and the factors that can affect its function.

What is digestion?

Digestion converts food into small, water-soluble molecules so the body can absorb it. In some organisms, these smaller substances are absorbed through the small intestine; in others, they’re pushed to the stomach and intestines, where digestion continues. Digestion is a form of catabolism often divided into mechanical and chemical processes. In mechanical digestion, large pieces of food are broken down into smaller pieces which then can be accessed by digestive enzymes. This occurs in the mouth when we chew and in the small intestine when our muscles contract and push food toward starch-splitting enzymes (segmentation). On the other hand, chemical digestion occurs when digestive enzymes break large molecules into smaller ones that can be used by cells for energy or stored as fat or glycogen.

The different types of digestion

There are several different ways the body digests food. The four main methods are chewing, swallowing, digesting in the small intestine, and digesting in the large intestine.

Chewing is when food is broken down into smaller pieces that can be easily absorbed into the blood. When you chew your food properly, it breaks down cell walls and allows nutrients to enter your bloodstream quickly. Swallowing is another way the body digests food. When you swallow, your stomach muscles push the food upward and into your esophagus. The esophagus takes the food to your first major organ of digestion: the stomach. In the stomach, gastric juices break down proteins and other nutrients into simpler chemicals that can be absorbed into your bloodstream. Finally, in the large intestine (colon), water from drinks and meals combines with fiber from foods to form a thick liquid called feces or stool. This process helps us rid our bodies of harmful toxins and waste products.

A few different types of digestive problems can occur because of a bad diet or lack of exercise: Crohn’s disease, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease), constipation, and diabetes mellitus type 2. These conditions can lead to more serious health complications such as Barrett’s esophagus, colon cancer, heart disease, stroke, kidney failure, and osteoporosis if left untreated.

The Digestive System

The digestive system includes the stomach, small, large, and rectum. The stomach also contains acids and enzymes that help destroy food cells. The large intestine’s main function is to remove waste products from the body.

The Stomach

The stomach is a sac-like organ located below the ribcage in the middle of the abdomen. The stomach has two parts: the cardia and the pylorus. The cardia is responsible for trapping food and contracting to churn it around so gastric juices can break it down. The pylorus controls the flow of food into the stomach and helps secrete gastric juices.

The Small Intestine

The digestive system is responsible for processing food in the small intestine and passing waste products out of the body. The small intestine is about 8-12 inches long and has walls made of tightly packed cells. Food moves through the small intestine by hydrolysis, which breaks down complex molecules into smaller ones, and this process helps to digest food and absorb nutrients. 

The Bowel

The large intestine is divided into the small and large intestines based on their diameter. The small intestine mainly absorbs nutrients from food, while the large intestine eliminates waste.

The liver is a key organ in digestion, and it helps break down food into components that gut bacteria can use. The gut bacteria help to digest food and produce energy for our bodies.

The Liver

The liver helps break down food and drink into essential nutrients the body can use. The liver also helps to store fat and remove waste from the body. The liver has many complex functions but is mainly responsible for digestion. 

The digestive system includes several organs and muscles that digest food. The stomach is responsible for breaking down food by producing hydrochloric acid. It also holds and breaks down leftover food to be used later. The small intestine helps to absorb the nutrients from food and water.

The large intestine is a long tube that leads from the large intestine to the rectum and anus (the opening between the legs). The large intestine helps to remove waste products from the body, including feces (poop).

The Pancreas

The pancreas also produces insulin, which helps the body process sugar from food. In addition, the pancreas helps produce bile, which helps with digestion by breaking down fat and cholesterol.

The Spleen

The spleen is a large, flat organ that sits below your stomach and helps break down and digest food.

The stomach contains several different kinds of muscles that help it churn and mix food with digestive juices. The gastric juice helps to break down food into small pieces.

The small intestines run from the stomach up through the backbone and out through the anus. They are about 8 feet long and have many tiny tubes called villi (villus means “little leaf”). These villi absorb nutrients from food as it moves through the intestine.

How to correct digestive problems?

Problems with digestion can lead to several digestive issues, including constipation, diarrhea, and stomach pain. Here are some tips for correcting common digestive problems:

1. Eat a balanced diet. Consuming a variety of foods is key to avoiding digestive issues. Make sure to include fiber-rich foods like fruits and vegetables, proteins, and healthy fats.

2. Avoid caffeine and alcohol. These substances can upset gastrointestinal flora’s balance, leading to constipation or diarrhea.

3. Take regular breaks during meals and snacks. Eating small, frequent meals and snacks helps empty the stomach so that food doesn’t stay in the intestines long enough to cause gas or indigestion problems.

4. Exercise regularly. Movement throughout the day helps clear the bowels and promotes healthy digestion overall.

Healthy digestion tips

Ways of maintaining healthy digestion include:

  • drinking plenty of water
  • following a balanced diet with plenty of fruits, vegetables, fiber, and whole foods
  • avoiding delays when using the bathroom when possible
  • exercising regularly
  • following food hygiene rules, such as handwashing and cooking meat, eggs, and fish well before eating them
  • seeking medical help if a person’s usual digestive or toilet habits change

When to see a doctor

A person should seek medical help if they notice any of the following symptoms:

  • persistent or recurring constipation, gas, vomiting, or diarrhea
  • severe pain in any part of their digestive system
  • persistent or severe acid reflux or heartburn
  • unexplained changes in their weight or appetite
  • blood in their stool
  • blood in their vomit
  • difficulty swallowing or feeling that food is stuck in their throat
  • changes in their bowel habits

Frequently asked questions

Here are some answers to questions people often ask about digestion.

What are the stages of the digestive system?

During digestion, food passes through the following stages:

  1. the mouth
  2. the esophagus
  3. the stomach
  4. the small intestine
  5. the large intestine, or colon
  6. the rectum

How does digestion work, step-by-step?

First, the teeth, tongue, and saliva turn food into a bolus, which is small and liquid enough to pass through the esophagus.

Next, the bolus enters the stomach, where muscular action, acids, and enzymes turn it into a paste called chyme. The chyme enters the small intestine.

How can I keep my digestion healthy?

Tips include:

  • drinking plenty of water
  • eating a varied diet with plenty of fresh vegetables and whole foods
  • establishing regular bowel habits
  • seeking medical help for any unexplained changes in digestion or bowel habits


The digestive system moves food through the body, breaking it down so nutrients can absorb into the bloodstream, where cells can use them for energy, tissue growth and repair, and other purposes.

Digestion involves multiple organs and systems, a range of chemicals, and peristalsis, automatic muscle movements, that move the food to the next stage.

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