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Multiple Sclerosis (MS)

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disorder where the immune system targets and damages the protective myelin coating on nerve cells in the brain, spinal cord, and eyes. This causes disruptions in nerve signaling and can result in a wide range of potential symptoms, including muscle weakness, pain, and cognitive impairment.

Despite ongoing research, the precise cause of MS remains unknown. MS is a lifelong condition that affects approximately 1 million people in the US and 2.8 million individuals worldwide.

This article will provide an overview of MS, covering topics such as symptoms, causes, diagnosis, treatment, and management strategies to live well with the condition.

What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis?

While multiple sclerosis (MS) affects each person differently, there are certain symptoms and signs that are commonly associated with the disease. However, it is important to note that no single feature is unique to MS.

One frequent initial symptom of MS is optic neuritis, which results from damage to the myelin that covers the cranial nerve. This nerve is responsible for transmitting visual information to the brain. Signs of optic neuritis may include blurred vision, reduced color intensity, and pain when moving the eyes.

MS can cause a variety of additional symptoms beyond optic neuritis, including:

  • Diplopia (double vision),
  • paresthesias (numbness and tingling),
  • fatigue,
  • bladder dysfunction,
  • impaired coordination and
  • balance, vertigo (a spinning sensation), and
  • muscle weakness.

These symptoms can vary in intensity and duration and may come and go over time.

When Does MS Develop?

MS can develop at any age, but it most commonly affects individuals between the ages of 20 and 40. However, the initial symptoms of MS can be mild or resemble those of other medical conditions, potentially leading to a delayed or incorrect diagnosis. Therefore, it is important to seek medical attention if you experience any concerning symptoms or have a family history of MS.

Types of MS

MS is categorized into four different types, each with their unique characteristics:

  • Clinically isolated syndrome (CIS): This is the first episode of MS-related neurological symptoms. It is possible that the individual may or may not develop MS in the future.
  • Relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS): This is the most common type of MS, accounting for 85-90% of initial MS diagnoses. Individuals with RRMS experience acute attacks or relapses of MS symptoms followed by periods of recovery where the disease does not progress.
  • Secondary progressive MS (SPMS): Individuals with SPMS experience a gradual worsening of MS symptoms and disability over time, even if they still experience occasional relapses.
  • Primary progressive MS (PPMS): Individuals with PPMS experience MS symptoms and disability that worsen over time from the onset of the disease. PPMS affects 10-15% of people with MS.

What Causes MS?

While the exact cause of MS is unknown, it is believed that a person must be genetically predisposed and exposed to certain environmental factors to develop the condition. Research suggests that genetics may play a role in MS susceptibility, with a person’s risk of developing the condition increasing to 2-4% if they have a sibling with MS and up to 30% if they have an identical twin with MS.

Additionally, environmental factors such as:

●      Tobacco smoking,

●      Low vitamin D levels,

●      Adolescent obesity, and

●      Previous infection with the Epstein-Barr virus (the most common cause of infectious mononucleosis, or mono) may also contribute to a person’s susceptibility to developing MS.

What Is the Central Nervous System?

The central nervous system includes the brain and spinal cord.9 The brain receives and processes nerve signals from throughout the body. It is responsible for memory, learning, thinking, feeling, and controlling movement and basic body processes such as breathing. The spinal cord contains nerves that communicate signals to and from the brain to the body.

How Is Multiple Sclerosis Diagnosed?

If you experience symptoms of MS, you may visit a primary healthcare provider who can refer you to a neurologist, a medical professional who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of nervous system disorders. MS diagnosis involves meeting a formal set of criteria called the McDonald criteria. To meet these criteria, a person must have evidence of damage in at least two different parts of their central nervous system (CNS), occurring at different times.

To assess if a person fulfills the McDonald criteria, a medical history, neurological exam, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain and sometimes the spinal cord are used.

Additional diagnostic tests may also be conducted, including a spinal tap (lumbar puncture) and various blood tests such as a vitamin B12 level or antinuclear antibody (ANA) test to rule out other medical conditions such as vitamin B12 deficiency or autoimmune diseases like lupus.

Treatment for Multiple Sclerosis

While there is currently no cure for MS, there are various therapies available that can help manage the disease and enhance daily functioning and quality of life. Treatment options for MS depend on the type and severity of the disease, as well as the individual’s specific symptoms and medical history.

Treatment may involve medications, rehabilitation therapies, and lifestyle modifications. It is important to work closely with your healthcare provider to develop a personalized treatment plan that meets your unique needs and goals.

Disease-Modifying Therapies (DMTs)

Disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) are a type of medication used to improve the long-term outlook of MS by slowing the progression of the disease, limiting the number of lesions on imaging tests, and reducing the frequency and severity of relapses.

There are several approved DMTs available, each with varying modes of action, side effects, effectiveness levels, and delivery methods such as injection, oral, or intravenous infusion. Working with a healthcare provider, people with MS can determine which DMT is most appropriate for their specific situation.

What DMT Should I Take?

Choosing a disease-modifying therapy (DMT) for MS is a complex decision that should involve a thorough discussion with a neurologist. The decision will depend on various factors such as the individual’s MS type, disease severity, overall health status, and personal preferences. Different DMTs have unique modes of action, side effect profiles, and levels of effectiveness, so it is crucial to evaluate each option carefully. Your neurologist can provide guidance on the available DMTs and help determine which one is most appropriate for your specific situation.

Medications for Relieving Symptoms

It is important to note that while disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) are effective in slowing the progression of MS, they do not treat individual relapses or relieve symptoms.

For the treatment of moderate to severe relapses, corticosteroids such as Solumedrol (methylprednisolone) or prednisone are typically used. Medications along with lifestyle and rehabilitation interventions can help manage everyday MS symptoms.

For instance, muscle relaxants like Lyvispah (baclofen) may be used for spasticity (muscle tightness), stimulants like Ritalin (methylphenidate) for fatigue, and antidepressants like Cymbalta (duloxetine) or anti-seizure drugs like Neurontin (gabapentin) for neuropathic pain (nerve-related pain). It is recommended to work with your primary doctor or a specialist to determine the appropriate medication and treatment plan for your specific needs. If experiencing non-threatening symptoms, TGH Urgent Care powered by Fast Track can provide assistance.

Complementary Therapies

In addition to medication and lifestyle modifications, complementary therapies can also be beneficial in managing MS symptoms. Under the guidance of a healthcare provider or physical therapist, exercise has been shown to have a positive impact on MS by decreasing fatigue and improving bladder function, balance, muscle strength, and cognition. Mind-body therapies such as massage and acupuncture have also been found to be helpful in reducing physical symptoms and improving stress management and well-being in individuals with MS.

 Massage can alleviate pain and fatigue, while acupuncture has been shown to improve fatigue, bladder problems, pain, and walking difficulties in MS patients. It is important to discuss any complementary therapies with your healthcare provider to ensure their safety and efficacy for your specific situation.

Lifestyle Changes

In addition to medical and complementary treatments, healthy lifestyle behaviors are essential for optimizing overall well-being and managing MS symptoms. Such behaviors may include establishing a regular sleep schedule, maintaining a well-balanced diet, engaging in physical activity, avoiding smoking, and staying up to date on general checkups and vaccinations (e.g., COVID-19 vaccine and flu shot). Practicing daily rituals that help de-stress, such as yoga, meditation, or listening to music, and engaging in pleasurable hobbies or activities can also be beneficial in managing MS symptoms and improving overall quality of life. By adopting these healthy lifestyle behaviors, individuals with MS can help support their overall health and well-being.

Living With MS

Living with a chronic and unpredictable disease like MS can be challenging on various levels, including physically, emotionally, financially, mentally, and logistically. However, with proper management, inner resiliency, and social support, it is possible to achieve a fulfilling life with MS. It is crucial to prioritize self-care, seek professional support, and engage in healthy lifestyle behaviors, such as regular exercise and a well-balanced diet, to manage symptoms effectively. Additionally, connecting with support groups and building a strong social network can be a valuable resource for emotional and practical support. While MS may present challenges, with the right interventions and support, most people with the condition can lead a fulfilling life.

How MS Affects Mental Health

It is common for individuals with MS and their loved ones to experience negative emotions such as sadness, irritability, frustration, fear, and anger. Grief is also a common reaction as individuals come to terms with losing physical or cognitive abilities, as well as the life they had imagined. While these emotions are expected, if they become overwhelming or begin to affect daily functioning, it is important to talk with a healthcare provider or neurologist. These feelings may indicate a more serious condition, such as depression or other mental health conditions, which can be effectively treated with appropriate interventions.

Seeking professional support and building a strong social network can also be helpful in managing these emotions and coping with the challenges of living with MS.

How Common Is Depression in MS?

Depression is a common condition affecting up to 50% of people living with MS, and it becomes more prevalent as the disease progresses. As you navigate MS and mental health, it is important to prioritize self-care and consider the following strategies:

• Prioritize your energy and emotional/physical needs.

 • Set and defend your boundaries.

• Practice self-compassion and self-care regularly.

• Ensure social support or join an MS support group for emotional and practical support.

 • Consider professional counseling or therapy, especially when dealing with sensitive issues such as intimacy or discussing MS with your children.

These strategies can help manage the emotional challenges of living with MS and improve overall well-being. It is essential to remember that seeking professional support is not a sign of weakness, but rather a proactive step towards better mental health and quality of life.

Caring for Someone With MS

Caring for someone with a disabling and unpredictable disease like MS can be a demanding and challenging experience that requires physical and emotional energy. In addition to managing physical demands, caregivers may also have to schedule healthcare provider appointments, pick up medication from the pharmacy, and manage household tasks such as cleaning, doing laundry, and paying bills.

To prevent burnout and ensure personal well-being, caregivers must be mindful of their physical and mental needs. This might include:

• Scheduling regular checkups with a healthcare provider and dentist

 • Carving out time each day to exercise or engage in other activities that promote self-care

• Connecting with others, joining a caregiver support group, or seeking professional counseling to address emotional challenges

• Taking short and long breaks, such as a coffee outing with a friend or an overnight stay in a hotel, to relax and recharge.

During these breaks, caregivers can ask a friend or family member for help or seek respite care from a home health agency that provides trained caregivers. It is important to remember that taking care of oneself is essential for providing effective and compassionate care to a loved one with MS.

 Prognosis for Multiple Sclerosis

While MS is an incurable chronic condition that can have a significant impact on a person’s life, including their relationships, career, and family decisions, the good news is that most people can still live well with the right support and care. MS is not generally considered a fatal condition, and if a person does pass away from MS-related causes, it is typically due to a complication of the disease such as a urinary tract infection (UTI), pneumonia, or a pressure sore. These complications tend to occur when a person’s MS is advanced, highlighting the importance of timely diagnosis, regular healthcare monitoring, and effective disease management. With proper treatment and support, individuals with MS can live fulfilling and productive lives.

What Is Advanced MS?

In advanced stages of MS, a person may be severely disabled by their symptoms, dependent on a full-time caregiver, and, in most cases, have had the disease for years. However, the good news is that the life expectancy of individuals diagnosed with MS has increased significantly over the past two decades. This increase in life expectancy is likely due to the remarkable discovery of several disease-modifying therapies that have helped slow the progression of the disease. Additionally, lifestyle changes and increased awareness about MS leading to earlier diagnosis and treatment may also play a role. With advances in treatment and care, people with MS can now look forward to a near-normal lifespan and continue to lead productive and fulfilling lives.


At TGH Urgent Care powered by Fast Track, we rely on high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to ensure the accuracy of the information presented in our articles.

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